Sensor characteristics determine if a sensor is suitable for your application or not. Your application often has requirements on the amount of noise that is allowed or a specific dynamic range is required. This again sets requirements on the full well of the sensor. Then there are other characteristics such as parasitic light sensitivity, dark current, quantum efficiency and more.
Until now the mentioned specifications are inherent to the sensor. A camera manufacturer cannot influence them a lot. Other sensor characteristics can be improved by a camera manufacturer. For example think of uniformity corrections and defect pixel corrections.
Most of these sensor characteristics are covered by the EMVA1288 standard.
On this page we will give some links to other articles where we will discuss the above characteristics in more details.